Review of: Chicago 1920

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Chicago 1920

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During the s, s, and s, there was a slow growth in the planning role of municipal governments in many large American cities, including Chicago.

Cartographic materials of various sorts were one of the byproducts of this growth. This Web page provides access to some government maps of Chicago from this period that are held at the University of Chicago Library's Map Collection.

Many of these maps were compiled to assist in the implementation of particular programs. In , for example, the Chicago Zoning Commission, in order to facilitate the creation of Chicago's first zoning law, compiled the first land-use map of Chicago.

In the s, government agencies, having acquired a mandate from the New Deal to try to alleviate urban poverty, produced maps that showed the geography of substandard housing, redlined areas, population loss, and relief distribution.

As World War II began to draw to a close, the Chicago Plan Commission compiled maps in which major postwar planning efforts were proposed, and in it published the first detailed land use plan for Chicago.

Many features included in on this map--certain highways and rail lines, for example--not to mention a population of 3.

Other government maps from the s, s, and s were essentially descriptive, for example, the Chicago Regional Planning Association's maps of industrial employees, subdivided land, and rail commutation time.

Other "descriptive" maps focused on the work of long-existing government agencies, for example, the Sanitary Commission, the U.

Late in the s, the U. Geological Survey, in conjunction with the Illinois Geological Survey, produced prototypes of its new 7. These maps differed from what would become the standard 7.

Thus, the set of USGS topographic maps of the Chicago area gives an extraordinary sense of the texture of the built environment that later editions do not.

We acknowledge that many of the maps linked on this Web page, compiled for internal agency use, are not cartographic masterpieces. Some are rather difficult to read, and we have been unable to locate a completely clear legend for the land use set.

Nonetheless, these maps contain information that exists in no other form. Zoomify breaks the original tiff files into tiny jpegs, so you can zoom in and out and move around quickly and efficiently.

Zoomify requires Flash and so won't work on many mobile phones. Luna, like Zoomify, allows you to zoom in and out and to move around.

It also allows download of jpeg versions of the files click "Export". To access the Luna files, click on the "Click here for Luna version" button.

In Chicago held its first mayoral election , electing William B. Ogden as its inaugural mayor. Chicago would go on to become the transportation hub of the United States with its road, rail, water and later air connections.

Chicago also became home to national retailers offering catalog shopping such as Montgomery Ward and Sears, Roebuck and Company , which used the transportation lines to ship all over the nation.

By the s, the construction of railroads made Chicago a major hub; over 30 lines entered the city. The main lines from the East ended in Chicago, and those oriented to the West began in Chicago, so by the city became the nation's trans-shipment and warehousing center.

Factories were created, most famously the harvester factory opened in by Cyrus Hall McCormick. It was a processing center for natural resource commodities extracted in the West.

The Wisconsin forests supported the millwork and lumber business; the Illinois hinterland provided the wheat. Hundreds of thousands of hogs and cattle were shipped to Chicago for slaughter, preserved in salt, and transported to eastern markets.

By refrigerated cars allowed the shipping of fresh meat to eastern cities. The prairie bog nature of the area provided a fertile ground for disease-carrying insects.

In springtime Chicago was so muddy from the high water that horses could scarcely move. Comical signs proclaiming "Fastest route to China" or "No Bottom Here" were placed to warn people of the mud.

Travelers reported Chicago was the filthiest city in America. The city created a massive sewer system. In the first phase, sewage pipes were laid across the city above ground, to use gravity to move the waste.

The city was built in a low-lying area subject to flooding. In , the city council decided that the entire city should be elevated four to five feet by using a newly available jacking-up process.

In one instance, the 5-story Brigg's Hotel, weighing 22, tons, was lifted while it continued to operate.

Observing that such a thing could never have happened in Europe, the British historian Paul Johnson cites the astounding feat as a dramatic example of American determination and ingenuity: based on the conviction that anything material is possible.

Although originally settled by Yankees in the s, in the s many Irish Catholics came to the city as a result of the Great Famine. Later in the century, the railroads, stockyards and other heavy industry of the late 19th century attracted a variety of skilled workers from Europe, especially Germans , Polish , English , Swedes , Norwegians and Dutch.

In , Chicago was the 92nd most populous city in the United States. Its population grew so rapidly that twenty years later, it was the ninth most populous city in the country.

In the pivotal year of , Chicago saw the completion of the Illinois and Michigan Canal , its first steam locomotives, the introduction of steam-powered grain elevators, the arrival of the telegraph, and the founding of the Chicago Board of Trade.

By Chicago was the largest city in what was then called the Northwest. In 20 years, Chicago grew from 4, people to over 90, Chicago surpassed St.

Louis and Cincinnati as the major city in the West and gained political notice as the home of Stephen Douglas , the presidential nominee of the Northern Democrats.

The city's government and voluntary societies gave generous support to soldiers during the war. Many of the newcomers were Irish Catholic and German immigrants.

Their neighborhood saloons, a center of male social life, were attacked in the mids by the local Know-Nothing Party , which drew its strength from evangelical Protestants.

The new party was anti-immigration and anti-liquor, and called for the purification of politics by reducing the power of the saloonkeepers.

His aggressive law enforcement sparked the Lager Beer Riot of April , which erupted outside a courthouse where eight Germans were being tried for liquor ordinance violations.

After , saloons became community centers only for local ethnic men, as reformers saw them as places that incited riotous behavior and moral decay.

Francis O'Neill , an Irish immigrant who later became police chief, published compendiums of Irish music largely collected from other newcomers playing in saloons.

Between and , Chicago grew from a city of , to nearly 1. Chicago's flourishing economy attracted huge numbers of new immigrants from Eastern and Central Europe, especially Jews, Poles and Italians along with many smaller groups.

Many business people and professionals arrived from the eastern states. Relatively few new arrivals came from Chicago's rural hinterland.

The exponential growth put increasing pollution on the environment, as hazards to public health impacted everyone. In , most of the city burned in the Great Chicago Fire.

The damage from the fire was immense; people died, 18, buildings were destroyed and nearly , of the city's , residents were left homeless.

Several key factors exacerbated the spread of the fire. At the time, most of Chicago's buildings and sidewalks were constructed of wood.

Danish immigrant Jens Jensen arrived in and soon became a successful and celebrated landscape designer. Jensen's work was characterized by a democratic approach to landscaping, informed by his interest in social justice and conservation, and a rejection of antidemocratic formalism.

Among Jensen's creations were four Chicago city parks, most famously Columbus Park. His work also included garden design for some of the region's most influential millionaires.

The land was reclaimed according to a design by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted. The temporary pavilions, which followed a classical theme, were designed by a committee of the city's architects under the direction of Daniel Burnham.

It was called the "White City" for the appearance of its buildings. The Exposition drew The fair featured the first, and until recently, largest Ferris wheel ever built.

The soft, swampy ground near the lake proved unstable ground for tall masonry buildings. While that was an early constraint, builders developed the innovative use of steel framing for support and invented the skyscraper in Chicago, which became a leader in modern architecture and set the model nationwide for achieving vertical city densities.

Developers and citizens began immediate reconstruction on the existing Jeffersonian grid. The building boom that followed saved the city's status as the transportation and trade hub of the Midwest.

Massive reconstruction using the newest materials and methods catapulted Chicago into its status as a city on par with New York and became the birthplace of modern architecture in the United States.

Chicago became the center of the nation's advertising industry after New York City. Albert Lasker , known as the "father of modern advertising," made Chicago his base from to As head of the Lord and Thomas agency , Lasker devised a copywriting technique that appealed directly to the psychology of the consumer.

Women, who seldom smoked cigarettes, were told that if they smoked Lucky Strikes, they could stay slender.

Lasker's use of radio, particularly with his campaigns for Palmolive soap, Pepsodent toothpaste, Kotex products, and Lucky Strike cigarettes, not only revolutionized the advertising industry but also significantly changed popular culture.

In Chicago, like other rapidly growing industrial centers with large immigrant working-class neighborhoods, gambling was a major issue.

The city's elite upper-class had private clubs and closely supervised horse racing tracks. The middle-class reformers focused on the workers, who discovered freedom and independence in gambling that was a world apart from their closely supervised factory jobs and gambled to validate risk-taking aspect of masculinity, betting heavily on dice, card games, policy, and cock fights.

Already, by the s, hundreds of saloons offered gambling opportunities, including off-track betting on the horses. The high-income, high-visibility vice lords, and racketeers built their careers and profits in ghetto neighborhoods, often branching into local politics to protect their domains.

McDonald, "The Gambler King of Clark Street," kept numerous Democratic machine politicians on expense account to protect his gambling empire and keep the goo-goo reformers at bay.

In large cities, illegal businesses like gambling and prostitution were typically contained in the geographically segregated red light districts.

The business owners made regularly scheduled payments to police and politicians, which they treated as a licensing expense.

The informal rates became standardized. Reform elements never accepted the segregated vice districts and wanted them all destroyed, but in large cities, the political machine was powerful enough to keep the reformers at bay.

Finally, around —, the reformers grew politically strong enough to shut down the system of vice segregation and the survivors went underground. Chicago's manufacturing and retail sectors, fostered by the expansion of railroads throughout the upper Midwest and East, grew rapidly and came to dominate the Midwest and greatly influence the nation's economy.

Chicago became the world's largest rail hub, and one of its busiest ports by shipping traffic on the Great Lakes. Commodity resources, such as lumber, iron and coal, were brought to Chicago and Ohio for processing, with products shipped both East and West to support new growth.

Lake Michigan — the primary source of fresh water for the city — became polluted from the rapidly growing industries in and around Chicago; a new way of procuring clean water was needed.

He envisioned a deep waterway that would dilute and divert the city's sewage by funneling water from Lake Michigan into a canal, which would drain into the Mississippi River via the Illinois River.

Beyond presenting a solution for Chicago's sewage problem, Cooley's proposal appealed to the economic need to link the Midwest with America's central waterways to compete with East Coast shipping and railroad industries.

Strong regional support for the project led the Illinois legislature to circumvent the federal government and complete the canal with state funding.

The opening in January met with controversy and a lawsuit against Chicago's appropriation of water from Lake Michigan. By the s the lawsuit was divided between the states of the Mississippi River Valley, who supported the development of deep waterways linking the Great Lakes with the Mississippi, and the Great Lakes states, which feared sinking water levels might harm shipping in the lakes.

In the U. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This list has no precise inclusion criteria as described in the Manual of Style for standalone lists.

Please improve this article by adding inclusion criteria. Discuss June Ward 13 Enumeration District Descriptions.

Ward 14 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 15 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 16 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 17 Enumeration District Descriptions.

Ward 18 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 19 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 20 Enumeration District Descriptions.

Ward 21 Enumeration District Descriptions. Ward 22 Enumeration District Descriptions.

I magnified the picture to % and looked at the car facing the camera. The logo on the radiator looks like the Chevy bowtie. From there I pulled out my Sixty Years of Chevrolet book and narrowed the car down to - based on fenders, radiator, body style, lights and other characteristics. Michigan Ave, Chicago, ’s The Ravinia Festival – 3 Decades of Program Covers (and other related graphics) Ravinia Festival entrance Highland Park, Illinois. Chicago in the 's was a place of magic and wonder if you were on the right side of the tracks, if not, you would have seen the worst of killings and crime.\ Chicago’s gangsters of the 's and 's were some of the most famous inhabitants of all time. They were the baddest of the bad guys, yet the champions of the people. Coverage spans but no directories are available for , , and The introduction to Polk's Chicago Directory provides a brief history of Chicago directories and a list of published volumes. Soldier Field was the scene of the world championship games when Chicago hosted the Amateur Softball centreduvin.comgh billiards was considered to be a popular commercial sport for blue-collar workers, the number of licensed billiard parlors diminished from 2, () to () due to the Great Depression.
Chicago 1920

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Chicago 1920


1 thoughts on “Chicago 1920

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