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Genie Wild

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Genie Wild

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Genie ist das Pseudonym eines amerikanischen Wolfskindes, eines Mädchens, das Opfer von schwerem Missbrauch, Vernachlässigung und sozialer Isolation wurde. Die Umstände, wie es dazu kam, sowie ihre psycholinguistische Entwicklung sind in den. Wenn Genie verärgert war, griff sie sich selbst wild an. Sie blieb danach völlig ausdruckslos und weinte oder sprach auch nie. Einigen Berichten zufolge konnte​. The Wild Genie: The Healing Power of Menstruation | Pope, Alexandra | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf​. Bekannt als das wilde Kind wurde Genie ein wichtiger Gegenstand der Forschung. Von besonderem Interesse war, ob sie die Sprache. Es gab einige vorwiegend Aufgaben der rechten Hemisphäre, bei denen Genie keine guten Leistungen erbrachte. HarperCollins, New York CityISBNS. Sie haben Javascript Mahjongspielen Kostenlos Ihren Browser deaktiviert.

From the start Genie showed a small amount of responsiveness to nonverbal information, including gestures and facial expressions from other people, and made reasonably good eye contact.

To make noise, she would push chairs or other similar objects. Linguists later discerned that, in January , Genie showed an understanding of only her own name, the names of a few others, and about 15—20 words, and her active vocabulary at the time consisted of two phrases, "stop it" and "no more".

They could not determine the extent of her expressive or receptive vocabulary at any point before January , and therefore did not know whether she had acquired any or all of these words during the preceding two months.

Within a month after Genie's admission to Children's Hospital, Jay Shurley, a professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences at the University of Oklahoma and a specialist in extreme social isolation, took an interest in her case.

Shurley noted that Genie's was the most severe case of isolation he had ever studied or heard about, which he maintained more than 20 years later.

Shurley found no signs of brain damage but observed a few persistent abnormalities in Genie's sleep, including a significantly reduced amount of REM sleep with a variance in duration much larger than average, and an unusually high number of sleep spindles bursts of rhythmic or repetitive neural activity.

Much later, for example, Susan Curtiss emphatically argued that, though Genie clearly had serious emotional difficulties, she could not have been retarded.

She pointed out that Genie made a year's developmental progress for every calendar year after her rescue, which would not be expected if her condition was congenital, and that some aspects of language Genie acquired were uncharacteristic of mentally retarded people.

In his first meeting with Genie, James Kent initially observed no reactions from her but eventually drew a small amount of nonverbal and verbal responsiveness with a small puppet.

Playing with this and similar puppets quickly became her favorite activity and, apart from her tantrums, accounted for most of the few times she expressed any emotion during the early part of her stay.

Genie quickly began growing and putting on weight, and steadily became more confident in her movements. By December, she had good eye—hand coordination and was much better at focusing her eyes.

During the first few months of her stay, giving her one of these objects could bring her out of a tantrum.

After a few weeks Genie became much more responsive to other people, and shortly afterward began paying attention to people speaking, but at first she remained mostly unexpressive and it was unclear whether she responded more to verbal or nonverbal stimuli.

Around the same time it was noted that Genie took pleasure in intentionally dropping or destroying small objects, and enjoyed watching someone else do the same to something she had been playing with.

She did not have the same reaction to recordings, and if someone played anything other than classical music she would change the sheet music to a book which she knew had pieces she liked.

By December , Kent and the other hospital staff working with Genie saw her as a potential case study subject. That month David Rigler obtained a small grant from the National Institute of Mental Health NIMH to do preliminary studies on her, and began organizing a research team to submit a larger request.

Around the same time, doctors noted that she was very interested in people speaking and that she attempted to mimic some speech sounds. By April and May , Genie's scores on the Leiter International Performance Scale tests had dramatically increased, with her overall mental age at the level of a typical 4-yearmonth-old, but on individual components she still showed a very high level of scatter.

However, she still had a hard time being with large crowds of people; at her birthday party, she became so anxious at all the guests present that she had to go outside with Rigler to calm down.

During the later part of Genie's stay at the hospital, she also started engaging in physical play with adults, and eventually began to enjoy giving and receiving hugs.

This was both her first exhibition of a sense of possession over items she thought were hers but was otherwise impartial towards and the first time she directed her anger outwards, but she did not entirely stop harming herself when angry.

Beginning in January scientists conducted a series of neurolinguistic tests on Genie to determine and monitor the course and extent of her mental development, making her the first language-deprived child to undergo any detailed study of her brain.

Over the following years multiple tests of her handedness supported this conclusion, as did observations of her in everyday situations.

In early March of that year, neuroscientists Ursula Bellugi and Edward Klima came from the Salk Institute for Biological Studies to administer their own series of brain exams on Genie.

Such an extreme level of asymmetry on these tests had previously only been documented in patients with either split-brain or who had undergone a hemispherectomy as an adult.

On non-language dichotic listening tests, she showed a slight preference for identifying non-language sounds in her left ear, which was typical for a right-handed person and helped rule out the possibility of her brain only being reversed in dominance for language.

Based on these results, Bellugi and Klima believed that Genie had been developing as a typical right-handed person until the time her father began isolating her.

They attributed the imbalance between Genie's hemispheres to the fact that Genie's sensory input as a child was almost exclusively visual and tactile, stimulating functions which are predominantly controlled in the right hemisphere of a right-handed person, and although this input had been extremely minimal it was sufficient to cause their lateralization to the right hemisphere.

Since Genie accurately distinguished speech sounds with her right hemisphere, they thought her language functions had lateralized there instead.

At the time of Genie's admission to Children's Hospital there was wide discussion in both lay and academic circles about the hypotheses of Noam Chomsky , who had first suggested that language was innate to humans and distinguishes humans from all other animals, and Eric Lenneberg , who in hypothesized that humans have a critical period for language acquisition and defined its end as the onset of puberty.

Though ancient and medieval texts made several references to language deprivation experiments modern researchers labeled such ideas "The Forbidden Experiment", impossible to carry out for ethical reasons.

The movie was a major success, and further heightened public interest in cases of children subjected to extreme abuse or isolation.

Prompted by this coincidence of timing, David Rigler led a team of scientists who sought and obtained a three-year grant from the NIMH to study Genie in May At the suggestion of Jean Butler, Genie's special education teacher at the hospital, they screened The Wild Child during their first meeting, and the scientists later said the film had an immediate and profound impact.

To the surprise of several scientists involved in the grant meetings, Rigler decided the primary focus of the study would be to test Chomsky and Lenneberg's hypotheses and selected UCLA linguistics professor Victoria Fromkin to head linguistic evaluation.

From the time of her admission to Children's Hospital researchers had tried to keep her identity concealed, and it was around this time that they adopted the pseudonym Genie for her, referencing similarities between a genie coming out of a lamp without having a childhood and Genie's sudden emergence into society past childhood.

Soon after the NIMH accepted the grant proposal, in late May , Susan Curtiss began her work on Genie's case as a graduate student in linguistics under Victoria Fromkin, and for the remainder of Genie's stay at Children's Hospital Curtiss met with Genie almost every day.

Over the following month, she and Genie very quickly bonded with each other. At around the same time Curtiss began her work, doctors reevaluated Genie on the Leiter scale and measured her on the Stanford—Binet Intelligence Scale , which placed her estimated mental age between a 5- and 8-year-old with a very high degree of scatter.

In June , Jean Butler obtained permission to take Genie on day trips to her home in Country Club Park, Los Angeles. Near the end of that month, after one of these trips, Butler told the hospital that she Butler might have contracted rubella , to which Genie would have been exposed.

Hospital staff were reluctant to give foster custody to Butler and were very skeptical of her story, strongly suspecting she had concocted it as part of a bid to take over as Genie's guardian and primary caretaker, but decided that placing Genie in an isolation ward at the hospital could potentially be highly damaging to her social and psychological development, so they agreed to temporarily quarantine her in Butler's home.

Soon after moving in with Butler, Genie started showing the first signs of reaching puberty , marking a dramatic improvement in her overall physical health and definitively putting her past Lenneberg's proposed critical period for language acquisition.

Butler wrote that Genie could eventually tolerate fenced dogs, but that there was no progress with cats.

She is living in an adult-care home somewhere in California. The reports say she is happy and that she communicates with the sign language.

Oxana Malaya was an 8-year-old wild child found in Ukraine, in Since that time, they have been largely replaced by other rodents, such as mice and rats.

However, they are still used in research, primarily as models to study such human medical conditions as juvenile diabetes , tuberculosis , scurvy like humans, they require dietary intake of vitamin C , and pregnancy complications.

The scientific name of the common species is Cavia porcellus , with porcellus being Latin for " little pig". Cavia is New Latin ; it is derived from cabiai , the animal's name in the language of the Galibi tribes once native to French Guiana.

How the animals came to be called "pigs" is not clear. They are built somewhat like pigs , with large heads relative to their bodies, stout necks, and rounded rumps with no tail of any consequence; some of the sounds they emit are very similar to those made by pigs, and they spend a large amount of time eating.

The animal's name alludes to pigs in many European languages. This derives from the Middle High German name merswin. This originally meant " dolphin " and was used because of the animals' grunting sounds which were thought to be similar.

Many other, possibly less scientifically based, explanations of the German name exist. For example, sailing ships stopping to reprovision in the New World would pick up stores of guinea pigs, which provided an easily transportable source of fresh meat.

This association with pigs is not universal among European terms; for example, the common word in Spanish is conejillo de Indias little rabbit of the Indies.

This is what guinea pigs were called by the Dutch traders who first brought them to Nagasaki in The origin of "guinea" in "guinea pig" is harder to explain.

One proposed explanation is that the animals were brought to Europe by way of Guinea , leading people to think they had originated there.

Another hypothesis suggests the "guinea" in the name is a corruption of " Guiana ", an area in South America. This hypothesis is untenable, because the guinea was first struck in England in , and William Harvey used the term "Ginny-pig" as early as The guinea pig was first domesticated as early as BC for food by tribes in the Andean region of South America the present-day southern part of Colombia , Ecuador , Peru , and Bolivia , [16] some thousands of years after the domestication of the South American camelids.

From about AD to the Spanish conquest in , the indigenous peoples used selective breeding to develop many varieties of domestic guinea pigs, which formed the basis for some of the modern domestic breeds.

Folklore traditions involving guinea pigs are numerous; they are exchanged as gifts, used in customary social and religious ceremonies, and frequently referred to in spoken metaphors.

Spanish , Dutch , and English traders took guinea pigs to Europe , where they quickly became popular as exotic pets among the upper classes and royalty, including Queen Elizabeth I.

Because cavies are not native to Hispaniola , the animal was believed to have been earlier introduced there by Spanish travelers.

The guinea pig was first described in the West in by the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner. The earliest-known European illustration of a domestic guinea pig is a painting artist unknown in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery in London, dated to , which shows a girl in typical Elizabethan dress holding a tortoise-shell guinea pig in her hands.

She is flanked by her two brothers, one of whom holds a pet bird. Some breeds are longfur breeds such as the Peruvian , the Silkie , and the Texel.

In the s, a minority scientific opinion emerged proposing that caviomorphs , such as guinea pigs, chinchillas , and degus , are not rodents and should be reclassified as a separate order of mammals similar to lagomorphs.

Guinea pigs can learn complex paths to food, and can accurately remember a learned path for months. Their strongest problem-solving strategy is motion.

They startle extremely easily, and either freeze in place for long periods or run for cover with rapid, darting motions when they sense danger.

Like many rodents, guinea pigs sometimes participate in social grooming , and they regularly self-groom. They have well-developed senses of hearing, smell , and touch.

Vocalization is the primary means of communication between members of the species. Some species of cavy identified in the 20th century, such as C.

They are social, living in the wild in small groups that consist of several females sows , a male boar , and the young which, in a break with the preceding porcine nomenclature, are called "pups" not "piglets".

They move together in groups herds eating grass or other vegetation, and do not store food. Domesticated guinea pigs thrive in groups of two or more; groups of sows, or groups of one or more sows and a neutered boar are common combinations, but boars can sometimes live together.

Guinea pigs learn to recognize and bond with other individual pigs, and testing of boars shows their neuroendocrine stress response is significantly lowered in the presence of a bonded female when compared to the presence of unfamiliar females.

Domestic guinea pigs generally live in cages, although some owners of large numbers of guinea pigs dedicate entire rooms to their pets.

Cages with solid or wire mesh floors are used, although wire mesh floors can cause injury and may be associated with an infection commonly known as bumblefoot ulcerative pododermatitis.

Bedding made from red cedar Eastern or Western and pine , both softwoods , were commonly used in the past, but these materials are now believed to contain harmful phenols aromatic hydrocarbons and oils.

Guinea pigs do not generally thrive when housed with other species. Back to log-in. Enter your new password.

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Our tech geniuses are now working on solving this issue. However, sometimes fixing the game is beyond our control such as an issue that needs to be resolved by the game developer.

Would you like us to let you know if we are able to repair the game and when it is working again? No one was allowed to interact with the girl who was mostly locked in a blacked-out room or in a makeshift cage.

Clark Wiley would hit her with a large plank of wood for any infraction. In her own words, Genie Wiley, the Feral Child recalled :.

Big wood. Genie cry…Not spit. Hit face — spit. Father hit big stick. Father is angry. Father hit Genie big stick.

Father take piece wood hit. Father make me cry. She was severely underdeveloped. She was thin and looked like a child of six or seven. She was incontinent and mute.

It appeared she never suffered from brain damage, mental disability, or autism. Therefore, the impairments and developmental delays Genie exhibited upon being assessed were the result of the isolation and deprivation she was subjected to.

Researchers would never deliberately conduct deprivation experiments with people on moral grounds. Genie soon learned basic social skills like using the toilet and dressing herself.

She was fascinated by her environment and would study it intensely. Little is known about her present condition, although an anonymous individual hired a private investigator to track her down in and described her as happy.

But this contrasts with other reports. Psychiatrist Jay Shurley visited her on her 27th and 29th birthdays and characterized her as largely silent, depressed , and chronically institutionalized.

If you want to do rigorous science, then Genie's interests are going to come second some of the time. If you only care about helping Genie, then you wouldn't do a lot of the scientific research.

So, what are you going to do? To make matters worse, the two roles, scientist and therapist , were combined in one person, in her case.

So, I think future generations are going to study Genie's case not only for what it can teach us about human development but also for what it can teach us about the rewards and the risks of conducting 'the forbidden experiment.

Ever wonder what your personality type means? Sign up to find out more in our Healthy Mind newsletter. Schoneberger T. Three myths from the language acquisition literature.

The Analysis of Verbal Behavior. American Psychological Association. Language acquisition device. In: APA Dictionary of Psychology. Vanhove J.

The critical period hypothesis in second language acquisition: A statistical critique and a reanalysis. PLoS One. The secret of the wild child [transcript].


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